An array section is a portion of an array that is an array itself. It is an array subobject. A section subscript list (appended to the array or array component) determines which portion is being referred to. A reference to an array section takes the following form:

array(sect-subscript-list)

- array
- Is the name of the array.
- sect-subscript-list
- Is a list of one or more section subscripts (subscripts,
subscript triplets, or vector subscripts) indicating a set of
elements along a particular dimension.
At least one of the items in the section subscript list must be a subscript triplet or vector subscript. A subscript triplet specifies array elements in increasing or decreasing order at a given stride. A vector subscript specifies elements in any order.

Each subscript and subscript triplet must be a scalar integer (or other numeric) expression. Each vector subscript must be a rank-one integer expression.

If *no* section subscript list is specified, the rank and
shape of the array section is the same as the parent array.

Otherwise, the rank of the array section is the number of vector subscripts and subscript triplets that appear in the list. Its shape is a rank-one array where each element is the number of integer values in the sequence indicated by the corresponding subscript triplet or vector subscript.

If any of these sequences is empty, the array section has a size of zero. The subscript order of the elements of an array section is that of the array object that the array section represents.

Each array section inherits the type, kind type parameter, and certain attributes (INTENT, PARAMETER, and TARGET) of the parent array. An array section cannot inherit the POINTER attribute.

If an array (or array component) is of type character, it can be followed by a substring range in parentheses. Consider the following declaration:

CHARACTER(LEN=15) C(10,10)

In this case, an array section referenced as C(:,:) (1:3) is an array of shape (10,10), whose elements are substrings of length 3 of the corresponding elements of C.

The following shows valid references to array sections:

REAL, DIMENSION(20) :: B ... PRINT *, B(2:20:5) ! The section consists of elements ! B(2), B(7), B(12), and B(17) K = (/3, 1, 4/) B(K) = 0.0 ! Section B(K) is a rank-one array with shape (3) and ! size 3. (0.0 is assigned to B(1), B(3), and B(4).)

A subscript triplet is a set of three values representing the lower bound of the array section, the upper bound of the array section, and the increment (stride) between them. It takes the following form:

[first-bound] : [last-bound] [:stride]

- first-bound
- Is a scalar integer (or other numeric) expression representing the first value in the subscript sequence. If omitted, the declared lower bound of the dimension is used.
- last-bound
- Is a scalar integer (or other numeric)
expression representing the last value in the
subscript sequence. If omitted, the declared upper bound of the
dimension is used.
When indicating sections of an assumed-size array, this subscript

*must*be specified. - stride
- Is a scalar integer (or other numeric) expression representing the increment between successive subscripts in the sequence. It must have a nonzero value. If it is omitted, it is assumed to be 1.

The stride has the following effects:

- If the stride is positive, the subscript range starts
with the first subscript and is incremented by the value of the
stride, until the largest value less than or equal to the second
subscript is attained.
For example, if an array has been declared as B(6,3,2), the array section specified as B(2:4,1:2,2) is a rank-two array with shape (3,2) and size 6. It consists of the following six elements:

B(2,1,2) B(2,2,2)

B(3,1,2) B(3,2,2)

B(4,1,2) B(4,2,2)If the first subscript is greater than the second subscript, the range is empty.

- If the stride is negative, the subscript range starts
with the value of the first subscript and is decremented by the
absolute value of the stride, until the smallest value greater
than or equal to the second subscript is attained.
For example, if an array has been declared as A(15), the array section specified as A(10:3:-2) is a rank-one array with shape (4) and size 4. It consists of the following four elements:

A(10)

A(8)

A(6)

A(4)If the second subscript is greater than the first subscript, the range is empty.

If a range specified by the stride is empty, the array section has a size of zero.

A subscript in a subscript triplet need not be within the declared bounds for that dimension if all values used to select the array elements are within the declared bounds. For example, if an array has been declared as A(15), the array section specified as A(4:16:10) is valid. The section is a rank-one array with shape (2) and size 2. It consists of elements A(4) and A(14).

If the subscript triplet does not specify bounds or stride, but only a colon (:), the entire declared range for the dimension is used.

A vector subscript is a one-dimensional (rank one) array of integer values (within the declared bounds for the dimension) that selects a section of a whole (parent) array. The elements in the section do not have to be in order and the section can contain duplicate values.

For example, A is a rank-two array of shape (4,6). B and C are rank- one arrays of shape (2) and (3), respectively, with the following values:

B = (/1,4/) C = (/2,1,1/) ! Will result in a many-one array section

Array section A(3,B) consists of elements A(3,1) and A(3,4). Array section A(C,1) consists of elements A(2,1), A(1,1), and A(1,1). Array section A(B,C) consists of the following elements:

A(1,2) A(1,1) A(1,1)

A(4,2) A(4,1) A(4,1)

An array section with a vector subscript that has two or more elements with the same value is called a many-one array section. A many-one section must not appear on the left of the equal sign in an assignment statement, or as an input item in a READ statement.

The following assignments to C also show examples of vector subscripts:

INTEGER A(2), B(2), C(2) ... B = (/1,2/) C(B) = A(B) C = A((/1,2/))

An array section with a vector subscript must not be any of the following:

- An internal file
- An actual argument associated with a dummy array that is defined or redefined (if the INTENT attribute is specified, it must be INTENT(IN))
- The target in a pointer assignment statement

If the sequence specified by the vector subscript is empty, the array section has a size of zero.

- On the INTENT attribute, see Section 5.10.
- On the PARAMETER attribute, see Section 5.14.
- On the TARGET attribute, see Section 5.18.
- On substrings, see Section 3.1.5.2.
- On array sections as structure components, see Section 3.2.3.
- On array constructors, see Section 3.4.2.4.

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