Reliable Transaction Router
Migration Guide

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2.8 Rights and Privileges

You need the same rights and privileges to manage the RTR environment and RTR applications in Versions 3 and 4 as in Version 2.

To manage RTR, you must have one of the following OpenVMS system rights or privileges: OPER, SETPRV, RTR$OPERATOR. To use the RTR API rtr_request_info, you must have the following right: RTR$INFO.

To run an application, you must have the following OpenVMS privilege: TMPMBX.

2.9 Memory and Disk Requirements

Generally, RTR Version 3 and 4 may make more demands on system memory than RTR Version 2, which can cause performance reduction. Adding more memory may be useful in improving performance.

Table 2-2 lists the OpenVMS requirements for space on the system disk. These sizes are approximate; actual size may vary depending on system environment, configuration, and software options. For additional details, see the Reliable Transaction Router for OpenVMS Software Product Description.

Table 2-2 OpenVMS Disk Requirements
Requirement RTR Version 2 RTR Versions 3 and 4
Disk space (installation) 40,000 blocks (20MB) 50,000 blocks (25MB)
Disk space (permanent) 24,000 blocks (12MB) 36,000 blocks (18MB)

2.10 Rollback to RTR Version 2

To restore the RTR Version 2 environment if RTR Version 3 or 4 does not work with your applications as expected, use the following procedure:

  1. In the RTR Version 3 or 4 environment, stop all clients so that no new transactions can be initiated.
  2. Monitor the RTR Version 3 or 4 journal to check the status of all current transactions. Once all transactions are complete and the journal is empty, you can proceed to the next step.
  3. When all transactions are complete, and the journal file is empty, delete the journal, and shut down the entire RTR Version 3 or 4 environment as follows:
    1. Shut down RTR applications.
    2. Shut down RTR Version 3 or 4.

      $ RTR STOP RTR 

    3. Remove RTR Version 3 or 4 by issuing the following command:
      $ product remove RTR
    4. Deassign the logical name RTRSHR with the OpenVMS DCL command:
    5. Install RTR Version 2 using VMSINSTAL.
      • Answer yes to the VMSINSTAL questions on purging files replaced by the installation, and running the IVP.
      • If you receive the message "The IVP has completed successfully" , RTR has been successfully installed.
    6. Bring up RTR Version 2, including performing the following tasks:
      1. Start RTR Version 2.
      2. Create the RTR Version 2 journal.
      3. Create the RTR Version 2 operating environment.
      4. Start the RTR Version 2 application.

Chapter 3
Architectural Changes

RTR Version 4 has added:

RTR Version 3 introduced certain process and other architectural changes. The following sections highlight these changes.

3.1 RTR Daemon Process

In RTR Version 3, a new RTR daemon process (called RTRD) is used by the RTRACP process to build TCP/IP connections for internode links. The RTR daemon process is present only on systems with IP networking installed and with IP enabled as an RTR transport (see Chapter 4, Network Issues, for information on setting your network transport).

3.2 Command Server Process

The command server process name is RTRCSV_<username>.

In RTR Version 2, a command server was started for every user login invocation to RTR to enter operator commands. With RTR Version 3, there is one command server per node for each user logged in through a common user name.


Command server timeouts are the same in RTR V3 and V4 as in RTR V2.

3.3 The Shared Library (LIBRTR.EXE)

In RTR Versions 3 and 4, LIBRTR supersedes RTRSHR. This library module LIBRTR contains most of the RTR code, in contrast with RTR Version 2, where only RTR code specific to application context was contained in RTRSHR. All RTR Version 2 binaries have been superseded by the two executables LIBRTR.EXE and RTR.EXE, in RTR Versions 3 and 4. Table 3-1 shows the executables of RTR Versions 2, 3, and 4.

Table 3-1 RTR Executables
RTR Version 2 RTR Versions 3 and 4
RTRACP Now part of LIBRTR.
RTRRTL No longer apply.

3.4 The ACP Process

The RTR Application Control Process (ACP) handles application control, and has the process name RTRACP. This is unchanged from RTR Version 2.

3.5 Interprocess Communication

In RTR Version 2, global sections (cache) were used for interprocess communication. In RTR Versions 3 and 4, interprocess communication is handled with mailboxes. Each RTR process, including any application process, has three mailboxes to communicate with the RTRACP process:

3.6 Shared Memory Parameters

With RTR Version 2, the SHOW RTR/PARAMS command showed the following:

The /PARAMS qualifier is obsolete in RTR Versions 3 and 4, and the parameters it showed no longer apply. In RTR Versions 3 and 4, these parameters are handled with OpenVMS mailboxes, which you can check using OpenVMS procedures. See the OpenVMS System Manager's Manual: Essentials for more information.

3.7 Counters

In RTR Version 2, shared memory in global sections was directly accessible using the RTR command server. In RTR Versions 3 and 4, process counters are still kept in shared memory, but they are accessed from the command server through RTRACP. Thus, accessing these and other counters involves communicating with RTRACP. Other counters are contained within the address space of the ACP.

3.8 Quorum Issues

Network partitioning in RTR Versions 3 and 4 is based on a router and backend count, whereas in RTR Version 2 it was based on quorum. However, quorum is still used in RTR Versions 3 and 4; state names and some quorum-related displays have changed.

Additionally, the quorum-related condition of a node in a minority network partition is handled more gracefully in RTR Versions 3 and 4. In RTR Version 2, a shadowed node in a minority network partition would just lose quorum; in RTR Versions 3 and 4, the MONITOR QUORUM command states that the node is "in minority," providing more information. The algorithms used to determine quorum have also changed significantly for a more stable traffic pattern.

3.9 Server-Process Partition States

As in RTR Version 2, there are three server-process partition states:

With RTR Versions 3 and 4, a server process that is initially the primary in a standby or shadow environment returns to primary after recovery from a network loss. (With RTR Version 2, there was no way to specify which node would become the primary after network recovery.) Unlike RTR Version 2, where the location of a primary server after a network outage was unpredictable, as long as servers have not been restarted and both servers are accessible, RTR Versions 3 and 4 retain the original roles.

With RTR Version 3.2, RTR provided commands such as SET PARTITION/PRIMARY that the operator can use to specify a process partition state.

Chapter 4
Network Issues

With RTR Versions 3 and 4, two network transports are available:

At least one transport is required. If a destination supports both transports, RTR Versions 3 and 4 can use either.

Any node can run either protocol, but the appropriate transport software must be running on that node. For example, for a node to use the DECnet protocol, the node must be running DECnet software. (For specific software network version numbers, see the RTR Version 4 OpenVMS Software Product Description.)

A link can fail over to either transport within RTR. Sufficient redundancy in the RTR configuration provides greater flexibility to change transports for a given link when necessary.

4.1 DECnet Support

With RTR Version 2, the only transport was DECnet Phase IV; it provided DECnet Phase V support but without longnames. With RTR Version 3, both DECnet Phase IV and DECnet-Plus (DECnet/OSI or DECnet Phase V) are supported, including support for longnames and long addresses.

4.2 TCP/IP Support

DECnet-Plus and TCP/IP provide multihoming capability: a multihomed IP node can have more than one IP address. RTR does name lookups and name address translations, as appropriate, using a name server. To use multihomed and TCP/IP addresses, Compaq recommends that you have a local name server that provides the names and addresses for all RTR nodes. The local name server should be available and responsive.

Name servers for all nodes used by RTR should contain the node names and addresses of all RTR nodes. Local RTR name databases must be consistent.


Include all possible addresses of nodes used by RTR, even those addresses not actually used by RTR. For example, a node may have two addresses, but RTR uses only one. Include both addresses in the local name database.

For more details on multihoming or dual-rail setup, see the appendix in the Reliable Transaction Router Application Design Guide "Dual-Rail Setup."

4.3 Specifying a Preferred Transport

During installation, the system manager can specify either transport, using logical names RTR_DNA_FIRST or RTR_TCP_FIRST . For example, in the RTR$STARTUP.COM file (found in SYS$STARTUP), the following line specifies DECnet as the default transport:


To set the default transport to TCP/IP, remove (comment out) this definition from RTR$STARTUP.COM and restart RTR. For the change to take immediate effect, you must undefine the old logical name before restarting RTR.

You can also change the above command in RTR$STARTUP.COM to the following:


When creating a facility using TCP/IP as the default, you can specify dna.nodename to override TCP/IP and use DECnet for a specific link. Similarly, when using DECnet as the default, you can specify tcp.nodename to use TCP/IP for a specific link. If the wrong transport has been assigned to a link, you must trim all facilities to remove nodes using the link (use the TRIM FACILITY command) to remove the link, then add the nodes back into the facility specifying the correct transport.

To run the DECnet protocol exclusively, use the following definition for the RTR preferred protocol logical name:


For examples of this command syntax, see the section on Network Transports in the Reliable Transaction Router System Manager's Manual.

4.3.1 Supported Products

Network products supported are listed in the RTR Version 3 and the RTR Version 4 Software Product Descriptions.

Chapter 5
System Management

Changes that affect system management have been introduced with RTR Versions 3 and 4. The following sections describe these changes.

5.1 RTR Management Station

With RTR Versions 3 and 4, you can manage RTR from a node where RTR is running, from a remote node from which you send RTR commands to a node running RTR, or from a web browser. The node where you enter commands, interact with the browser, or view results is your management station.

5.1.1 Browser Interface

With the RTR browser interface, your management station has a network-browser-like display from which you can view RTR status and issue many RTR commands with a point-and-click operation. You use the browser interface, for example, with Microsoft Internet Explorer on an NT system. For more details on the browser interface, see Reliable Transaction Router Getting Started and the Reliable Transaction Router System Manager's Manual.

5.2 OpenVMS Quotas

RTR Version 2 used OpenVMS quota values specified on the RTR START command or calculated defaults. Because RTR Versions 3 and 4 use dynamic allocation (with the exception of the number of partitions that is statically defined), RTR does not calculate the required quotas, but depends on the system manager to configure quotas adequately. The value of maximum partitions is now set at 500. (See the RTR System Manager's Manual and Release Notes for further information on partitions.)

For example, with RTR Version 2 you were required to explicitly specify the number of links or the number of facilities if defaults were too low. You no longer need to specify each RTR parameter value manually. Additionally, because RTR Versions 3 and 4 use mailboxes, you use the appropriate OpenVMS quotas to establish sufficient resources to support RTR Version 3 and 4 interprocess communication.

In RTR Versions 3 and 4, all these parameters are governed by OpenVMS quotas. To establish these for RTR Versions 3 and 4, Compaq recommends that you record the actual quotas used by RTR Version 2 on each node and add 50 percent to these values for RTR Versions 3 and 4. See Table 2-1 for some specifics.

5.3 Startup

There is a new RTR$STARTUP.COM file in SYS$STARTUP. It contains several changes including specifying RTR file locations, and choice of transport (protocol).

5.4 Creating Facilities

You create facilities the same way in RTR Versions 3 and 4 as in RTR Version 2

5.4.1 Naming Nodes

With the addition of TCP/IP and DECnet-Plus (DECnet/OSI) to RTR Version 3 and 4, you can now use longnames for node names.

5.4.2 Modifying Facility Configurations

To modify facilities, you use the same procedures in RTR Versions 3 and 4 as in RTR Version 2. One facility command has been changed:


has been changed to:


5.5 Interoperability

All supported operating systems can interoperate together in the RTR environment, as described in Table 5-1.

Table 5-1 Interoperability Between Nodes
RTR Versions 3 and 4 nodes interoperate with... Description
Other RTR Version 2 nodes In RTR Versions 3 and 4, RTR uses data marshalling (examination of byte format of messages) and can handle data of more than one byte format, making the appropriate translation as required. However, an application running with RTR may not adequately handle different byte formats used on different hardware architectures. RTR Versions 3 and 4 let you run both RTR Version 2 and RTR Version 3 or 4 nodes in the same environment, but because the RTR Version 2 API does not have the data marshalling capability, an RTR Version 2 application must deal with the different data formats.
Other RTR Version 3 nodes RTR Version 3 is fully compatible with other nodes running RTR Version 3. See the RTR Version 3 Release Notes for specifics on known requirements and restrictions.
Other RTR Version 4 nodes RTR Version 4 is fully compatible with other nodes running RTR Version 4. See the RTR Version 4 Release Notes for specifics on known requirements and restrictions.

5.6 Monitoring

Several screens that provide dynamic information on transactions and system state have changed for RTR Versions 3 and 4, as described in the following sections.

5.6.1 RTR Version 2 Screens

Table 5-2 lists the RTR Version 2 screens that are no longer available in RTR Versions 3 and 4. In general, information in these monitor pictures is no longer applicable. For example, there is no longer a need to examine cache, because RTR Version 3 dealt with memory management using OpenVMS mailboxes.

Table 5-2 Obsolete RTR Version 2 Monitor Pictures
bequorum cache chmdata chmmsg
congestion declare delayproc dtinfo
facility failure memory inbytes
inmessages inpackets locks msgacpsys
outbytes outmessages outpackets packets
process RTR toptps trquorum

5.6.2 New Screens

Table 5-3 lists the monitor screens that were new to RTR Version 3. No new monitor screens have been added for RTR Version 4, though a small number have been changed.

Table 5-3 Standard Monitor Pictures
Picture name Description
accfail Shows link transport name for links on which a connection attempt was declined, with a reason for failure. The most recent entry is highlighted.
acp2app Displays counts of messages and number of bytes from RTRACP to the application, as viewed from a specific node.
active Displays a list of RTR processes, and for each process the number of transactions they have started, the number of transactions they have completed and the number of transactions that are still active.
app2acp Displays counts of messages and number of bytes from the application to RTRACP, as viewed from a specific node.
broadcast Displays information about RTR user events by process, including number of user events enqueued, received, and discarded.
calls Displays the total number of RTR API calls and their success or failure for the processes on all the nodes being monitored. All RTR message are also show by message type. (Pending messages are ones that an application has not received yet). Use the /IDENTIFICATION=process-id qualifier to display the values for one specific process, otherwise the total values for all processes are displayed.
channel Displays the roles of the channels declared by an application. This can be useful as a debugging tool in the early stages of application development.
connects Displays connection status summary, including the number of links up and down, and a list of links with state (up or down), architecture, network transport, and fail-reason, if any.
event Displays event routing data by facility. Information includes events in transit and destination information showing number of events enqueued, processed, and discarded.
flow Displays the flow control counters.
frontend Displays frontend status and counts by node and facility, including frontend state current router, reject status, retry count, and quorum rejects.
group Shows server and transaction concurrency on a partition basis.
ipc Shows counts of inter-process communication (IPC) activity in the RTR ACP and active RTR applications.
ipcrate Displays rate information on IPC messages, byte counts, and IO primitive usage.
journal Displays the current journal usage on a node. Local node journal statistics are provided, and data for non-local journals accessed from the local node. Include statistics covering total number of entries and records written, the number of records read, and how many bytes were involved. Bar graphs showing current usage of journal blocks (as a percentage of the total) are also provided.
link Displays a number of per link data items. The /LINK=link-name qualifier can be used if the values for one specific link are to be displayed, otherwise the total values for all links are displayed.
netbytes Displays a list of the links to other nodes. For each link, the total number of bytes received and sent on that link and the number of bytes received and sent per second are displayed.
netstat For each link, displays the connection status in detail, with the link state (up or down), and architecture type of remote node (such as VAX, I386, Alpha, and so on).
partit Displays the status of server partitions. Shows the partition identifiers, key ranges and key segments, and the status of the servers (active, recovering and so on).
queues Shows transaction queues on a partition basis.
quorum Tracks (by facility) the configuration, reachability, and quorum status of one or more nodes.
recovery Displays the status of server recovery procedures, such as waiting for quorum, catching up transactions, and so on.
rejects Displays the last rtr_mt_rejected message received by each running process.
rejhist Displays the last ten rtr_mt_rejected messages received by the selected process.
response Displays the elapsed time that a transaction has been active on the opened channels of a process.
rolequor A detailed picture of the various data items displayed in the QUORUM picture, separated by roles. If a quorum problem is encountered, this picture may be useful for problem diagnosis.
routers Displays information on a router node. It gives an indication of the utilization of the router in terms of transactions and broadcasts routed through this node. Useful to monitor performance, or locate problems.
routing Displays statistics of transaction and broadcast traffic by facility.
rscbe Displays the most recent calls history for the RSC subsystem on a backend node.
stalls Displays in real time any network links that are currently stalling in their outbound traffic, and provides a history of the stalls that the various links encountered during their lifetime.
system Displays the state of critical resources within the RTR environment. If a resource has exceeded a predefined threshold, a warning indicator is displayed.
tps Displays the rate of transaction commits carried out by each process using RTR.
tpslo Displays low end of the rate of transaction commits carried out by each process using RTR.
traffic Displays a list of the links to other nodes. Shown for each link are: byte rate, packet rate, message rate and congestion, in both directions. Average packets per second is also shown.
trans Displays transactions for a frontend, router and backend.
v2calls Shows RTR Version 2 verb usage through the interoperability subsystem. The screen layout is identical to the RTR Version 2 monitor calls picture.
xa Displays XA counter information including success and failure as well as call and readonly counters.

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