Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS

Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS

SNMP Programming and Reference

Order Number: AA--R04BC--TE

January 2001

Revision/Update Information: This manual supersedes the DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS eSNMP Programming and Reference, Version 5.0.

Software Version: Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Version 5.1

Operating Systems: OpenVMS Alpha Versions 7.1, 7.2-1 OpenVMS VAX Versions 7.1, 7.2

Compaq Computer Corporation Houston, Texas

© 2001 Compaq Computer Corporation

COMPAQ, VAX, VMS, and the Compaq logo Registered in U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

OpenVMS and Tru64 are trademarks of Compaq Information Technologies Group, L.P. in the United States and other countries.

All other product names mentioned herein may be trademarks of their respective companies.

Confidential computer software. Valid license from Compaq required for possession, use, or copying. Consistent with FAR 12.211 and 12.212, Commercial Computer Software, Computer Software Documentation, and Technical Data for Commercial Items are licensed to the U.S. Government under vendor's standard commercial license.

Compaq shall not be liable for technical or editorial errors or omissions contained herein. The information in this document is provided "as is" without warranty of any kind and is subject to change without notice. The warranties for Compaq products are set forth in the express limited warranty statements accompanying such products. Nothing herein should be construed as constituting an additional warranty.


This document is available on CD-ROM.

Contents Index


The Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS product is the Compaq implementation of the TCP/IP networking protocol suite and internet services for OpenVMS Alpha and OpenVMS VAX systems.

A layered software product, TCP/IP Services provides a comprehensive suite of functions and applications that support industry-standard protocols for heterogeneous network communications and resource sharing.

This manual describes the features of the Simple Network Managment Protocol (SNMP) provided with TCP/IP Services. It also describes the extensible SNMP (eSNMP) application programming interface (API) and development environment.

See the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Installation and Configuration manual for information about installing, configuring, and starting this product.

Intended Audience

This manual is for experienced OpenVMS and UNIX system managers and assumes a working knowledge of TCP/IP networking, TCP/IP terminology, and some familiarity with the TCP/IP Services product.

Document Structure

This manual contains the following chapters:

Related Documents

Table 1 lists the documents available with this version of TCP/IP Services.

Table 1 TCP/IP Services Documentation
Manual Contents
DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Concepts and Planning This manual provides conceptual information about networking and the TCP/IP protocol including a description of the Compaq implementation of the Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND) service and the Network File System (NFS). It outlines general planning issues to consider before configuring your system to use the TCP/IP Services software.

This manual also describes the manuals in the documentation set, provides a glossary of terms and acronyms for the TCP/IP Services software product, and documents how to contact the InterNIC Registration Service to register domains and access Request for Comments (RFCs).

Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Release Notes This text file describes new features and changes to the software including installation, upgrade, configuration, and compatibility information. These notes also describe new and existing software problems and restrictions, and software and documentation corrections.

Print this text file at the beginning of the installation procedure and read it before you install TCP/IP Services.

Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Installation and Configuration This manual explains how to install and configure the TCP/IP Services layered application product.
DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS User's Guide This manual describes how to use the applications available with TCP/IP Services such as remote file operations, email, TELNET, TN3270, and network printing. This manual explains how to use these services to communicate with systems on private internets or on the worldwide Internet.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management This manual describes how to configure and manage the TCP/IP Services product.

Use this manual with the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management Command Reference manual.

Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management Command Reference This manual describes the TCP/IP Services management commands.

Use this manual with the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management manual.

Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management Commands Quick Reference Card This reference card lists the TCP/IP management commands by component and describes the purpose of each command.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS UNIX Commands Quick Reference Card This reference card contains inforomation about commonly performed network management tasks and their corresponding TCP/IP management and Compaq Tru64 UNIX command formats.
DIGITAL TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS ONC RPC Programming This manual presents an overview of high-level programming using open network computing remote procedure calls (ONC RPC). This manual also describes the RPC programming interface and how to use the RPCGEN protocol compiler to create applications.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Sockets API and System Services Programming This manual describes how to use the Sockets API and OpenVMS system services to develop network applications.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS SNMP Programming and Reference This manual describes the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and the SNMP application programming interface (eSNMP). It describes the subagents provided with TCP/IP Services, utilities provided for managing subagents, and how to build your own subagents.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Tuning and Troubleshooting This manual provides information about how to isolate the causes of network problems and how to tune the TCP/IP Services software for the best performance.
Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Guide to IPv6 This manual describes the IPv6 environment, the roles of systems in this environment, the types and function of the different IPv6 addresses, and how to configure TCP/IP Services to access the 6bone network.

For additional information about Compaq OpenVMS products and services, access the Compaq website at the following location: 

For a comprehensive overview of the TCP/IP protocol suite. you might find the book Internetworking with TCP/IP: Principles, Protocols, and Architecture, by Douglas Comer, useful.

Reader's Comments

Compaq welcomes your comments on this manual. Please send comments to either of the following addresses:
Mail Compaq Computer Corporation
OSSG Documentation Group, ZKO3-4/U08
110 Spit Brook Rd.
Nashua, NH 03062-2698

How to Order Additional Documentation

Visit the following World Wide Web address for information about how to order additional documentation: 

If you need help deciding which documentation best meets your needs, call 800-282-6672.


The name TCP/IP Services means both:

The name UNIX refers to the Compaq Tru64 UNIX operating system.

The following conventions are used in this manual. In addition, please note that all IP addresses are fictitious.
Ctrl/ x A sequence such as Ctrl/ x indicates that you must hold down the key labeled Ctrl while you press another key or a pointing device button.
PF1 x A sequence such as PF1 x indicates that you must first press and release the key labeled PF1 and then press and release another key or a pointing device button.
[Return] In examples, a key name enclosed in a box indicates that you press a key on the keyboard. (In text, a key name is not enclosed in a box.)

In the HTML version of this document, this convention appears as brackets, rather than a box.

... A horizontal ellipsis in examples indicates one of the following possibilities:
  • Additional optional arguments in a statement have been omitted.
  • The preceding item or items can be repeated one or more times.
  • Additional parameters, values, or other information can be entered.
A vertical ellipsis indicates the omission of items from a code example or command format; the items are omitted because they are not important to the topic being discussed.
( ) In command format descriptions, parentheses indicate that you must enclose choices in parentheses if you specify more than one.
[ ] In command format descriptions, brackets indicate optional choices. You can choose one or more items or no items. Do not type the brackets on the command line. However, you must include the brackets in the syntax for OpenVMS directory specifications and for a substring specification in an assignment statement.
| In command format descriptions, vertical bars separate choices within brackets or braces. Within brackets, the choices are optional; within braces, at least one choice is required. Do not type the vertical bars on the command line.
{ } In command format descriptions, braces indicate required choices; you must choose at least one of the items listed. Do not type the braces on the command line.
bold text This typeface represents the introduction of a new term. It also represents the name of an argument, an attribute, or a reason.
italic text Italic text indicates important information, complete titles of manuals, or variables. Variables include information that varies in system output (Internal error number), in command lines (/PRODUCER= name), and in command parameters in text (where dd represents the predefined code for the device type).
UPPERCASE TEXT Uppercase text indicates a command, the name of a routine, the name of a file, or the abbreviation for a system privilege.
Monospace text Monospace type indicates code examples and interactive screen displays.

This typeface indicates UNIX system output or user input, commands, options, files, directories, utilities, hosts, and users.

In the C programming language, this typeface identifies the following elements: keywords, the names of independently compiled external functions and files, syntax summaries, and references to variables or identifiers introduced in an example.

- A hyphen at the end of a command format description, command line, or code line indicates that the command or statement continues on the following line.
numbers All numbers in text are assumed to be decimal unless otherwise noted. Nondecimal radixes---binary, octal, or hexadecimal---are explicitly indicated.

Chapter 1

The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is the de facto industry standard for managing TCP/IP networks. The protocol defines the role of a network management station (NMS) and the SNMP agent. SNMP allows remote users on an NMS to monitor and manage network entities such as hosts, routers, X terminals, and terminal servers.

TCP/IP Services provides support for SNMP Version 2, using the Extensible Simple Network Management Protocol (eSNMP) architecture, under which a single master agent can support any number of subagents. The TCP/IP Services implementation of eSNMP includes a master agent, two subagents, an application programming interface (API), tools used to build additional subagents, startup and shutdown procedures, and text-based configuration files.

This chapter provides an overview of the Compaq implementation of eSNMP. Topics include:

1.1 SNMP Architecture

Figure 1-1 illustrates the SNMP architecture.

Figure 1-1 SNMP Architecture

The SNMP environment consists of the following elements:

For information about configuring and managing the SNMP service, refer to the Compaq TCP/IP Services for OpenVMS Management guide.

1.2 Request Handling

The eSNMP software manages network communication by having the master agent listen for requests and then passes the requests to the appropriate subagent.

Figure 1-2 illustrates communication between the master agent and subagents.

Figure 1-2 eSNMP Data Flow

The process of communication for a request is illustrated with dashed lines and includes the following steps:

  1. The network management station (NMS) (sometimes called the client), originates SNMP requests to obtain and set information.


    The client component is not provided with TCP/IP Services.

    To provide access to MIBs and to test SNMP communication, TCP/IP Services provides the following utilities:
    • MIB browser
    • Trap sender
    • Trap receiver

    These utilities are described in Chapter 4.

    The network management station sends an SNMP request to the master agent running on the host, using port 161. An SNMP request is made using one of the following commands:


    TCP/IP Services does not support the standard SNMP Inform command.

    The request specifies the object identifer (OID) of the data to be accessed. For information about formatting get and set requests, refer to Section 5.2. Request formats are specified in RFC 1905.
  2. The master agent sends the request to the subagent that registered the subtree containing the OID.
    The subagent receives communications from the master agent over the socket that was assigned when the subagent registered the subtree.
  3. The appropriate subagent processes the request.
  4. The subagent sends the response message to the master agent using the port that was assigned when the subagent registered the MIB.

When they are idle, subagents periodically send a message to port 705 to ensure that the master agent is still running. In Figure 1-2, subagent 1 is sending the esnmp_are_you_there message.

A trap is generated by the subagent and sent to the client. In Figure 1-2, subagent n is generating a trap for the trap client on NMS 2.

The trap and esnmp_are_you_there routines are described in Section 5.1.

1.3 TCP/IP Services Components for SNMP

Table 1-1 lists the components of SNMP and the command procedures for managing SNMP that are supplied with TCP/IP Services.

Table 1-1 SNMP Component Files
File Location Function
TCPIP$HR_MIB.EXE SYS$SYSTEM Host Resources MIB subagent image.
TCPIP$SNMP_TRAPSND.EXE SYS$SYSTEM Utility for sending trap messages.
TCPIP$SNMP_TRAPRCV.EXE SYS$SYSTEM Utility for receiving trap messages.
TCPIP$ESNMP_SHR.EXE SYS$SHARE Image file containing eSNMP application programming interface (API) routines.
TCPIP$SNMP_STARTUP.COM SYS$STARTUP Command procedure that installs master and subagent images and runs TCPIP$SNMP_RUN.COM.
TCPIP$SNMP_SYSTARTUP.COM SYS$STARTUP Command procedure initiated by TCPIP$SNMP_STARTUP.COM. Provided for site-specific customizations, such as parameter settings.
TCPIP$SNMP_RUN.COM TCPIP$SYSTEM Command procedure that starts the master agent and subagents.
TCPIP$SNMP_SHUTDOWN.COM SYS$STARTUP Command procedure that stops the master agent and subagents.
TCPIP$SNMP_SYSHUTDOWN.COM SYS$STARTUP Command procedure initiated by TCPIP$SNMP_SHUTDOWN.COM. Provided for site-specific customization, such as parameter settings.
    Command procedure invoked by TCPIP$SNMP_SYSTARTUP.COM to start custom subagents.
    Command procedure invoked by TCPIP$SNMP_SYSHUTDOWN.COM to stop custom subagents.
    Command procedure invoked by TCPIP$SNMP_SYSTARTUP.COM when the service is enabled and starts detached processes to run subagents.

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