KAP Fortran for OpenVMS
User Guide

April 1999

This document provides information about how to run and use KAP Fortran on OpenVMS Alpha systems.

Revision /Update Information This is a revised document.

Operating System and Version: OpenVMS Alpha, Version 7.2

Software Versions: Version 3.2
Compaq Fortran 90

Compaq Computer Corporation
Maynard, Massachusetts
First Printing, December 1992
Revised, April 1999

Possession, use, or copying of the software described in this publication is authorized only pursuant to a valid written license from Compaq or an authorized sublicensor.

Compaq Computer Corporation makes no representations that the use of its products in the manner described in this publication will not infringe on existing or future patent rights, nor do the descriptions contained in this publication imply the granting of licenses to make, use, or sell equipment or software in accordance with the description.

Digital Equipment Corporation 1992-1999. All rights reserved.

Kuck & Associates, Inc. 1992-1999. All rights reserved.

Compaq, the Compaq logo, AlphaGeneration, OpenVMS, and DIGITAL are registered in U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

DECthreads is a trademark of Compaq Computer Corporation.

KAP is a trademark of Kuck & Associates, Inc.

Other product names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective companies.

This document is available on CD-ROM.

This document was produced using SDMLWEB.



1 Overview

2 How to Run KAP

2.1 General KAP Information

2.2 Installing KAP

2.3 Compiling a Program Using the kfort Driver

2.4 kfort Qualifiers

2.4.1 /c, (/c)

2.4.2 /verbose, /verbose, (/noverbose)

2.5 Compiling a Program Containing C Preprocessor Directives Using kfort

2.6 Optimized Programs

2.7 KAP Command Qualifiers Determined by Compiler Qualifiers

2.8 Compiling a Program Using kapf

2.9 Compiling a Program Containing C Preprocessor Directives Using kapf

2.10 Using KAP Syntax

2.10.1 Using the /fkapargs Option

2.10.2 Concantenating Files with kfort

2.10.3 Using the files= Option

2.10.4 Listing File Names

2.10.5 Using Options with a List of File Names

2.11 Using File Naming Conventions

2.12 Introducing the Five Minute KAP Guide

2.12.1 Optimizing Small Programs with KAP

2.12.2 Optimizing Large Programs with KAP

2.13 Improving and Customizing KAP Performance

2.14 General Optimization Tips

2.15 Using Additional Performance Improvement Techniques

2.16 Correcting KAP Problems

3 KAP Parallel Processing

3.1 Automatic Parallelization Using the kfort Driver

3.1.1 Parallel Processing Options

3.2 Running a Parallel Program

3.3 Directed Parallelization Using the kfort Driver and PCF Directives

3.3.1 PCF Directive Syntax and Lexical Rules

3.3.2 PARALLEL REGION Directive

3.3.3 PARALLEL DO Directive

3.3.4 DO Loop Example with PCF Directives

3.3.5 Program Example with PCF Directives

3.3.6 CRITICAL SECTION Directive


3.3.8 Comparison of KAP PCF and Cray Autotasking Directives

3.4 Combined Automatic and Directed Parallelization Using the kfort Driver

3.5 Compiling a Program for Parallel Execution Using kapf

3.6 Parallel Run-Time Support Library Routines

3.7 Parallel Programming Tips

4 KAP and Fortran Constructs

4.1 Arrays

4.2 MODULE Variables

4.3 MODULE Parameters

4.4 MODULE Procedures

4.5 Generic Fortran Interfaces

4.6 Internal Procedures

4.7 Host-Associated Variables

4.8 Derived Types

4.9 Deferred Shape Objects

4.10 Intrinsics

4.11 Input/Output

5 Command Qualifiers

5.1 General Optimization Qualifiers

5.1.1 /interchange, /nointerchange, (/interchange)

5.1.2 /namepartitioning, /namepart, /nnamepart, (/nonamepartitioning)

5.1.3 /optimize, /o, (/optimize=5)

5.1.4 /roundoff, /r, (/roundoff=3)

5.1.5 /scalaropt, /so, (/scalaropt=3)

5.1.6 /skip, /sk, /nsk, (/noskip)

5.1.7 /tune, /tune, (/tune=<architecture>)

5.2 Parallel Processing Qualifiers

5.2.1 /compiler, (/compiler=openvmsf90)

5.2.2 /concurrentize, /conc, /noconc, (/noconcurrentize)

5.2.3 /minconcurrent, /mc, (/minconcurrent=1000)

5.2.4 /optimize=6, /o=6, (/optimize=5)

5.2.5 /parallelio, /nopio, /pio, (/noparallelio)

5.2.6 /scheduling=<list>, /schd=<list>, (/scheduling=e)

5.3 Fortran Dialect Qualifiers

5.3.1 /align_common, /align_common, (/align_common=1)

5.3.2 /align_struct, /align_struct, (/align_struct=4)

5.3.3 /assume, /a, (/assume=cel), /noassume, /na

5.3.4 /datasave, /ds, (/datasave), /nodatasave, /nds

5.3.5 /dlines, /dl, (/nodlines), /ndl

5.3.6 /escape, /noescape, (/escape)

5.3.7 /freeformat, /ff, (/nofreeformat)

5.3.8 /integer, /int, (/integer=4)

5.3.9 /intlog, (/intlog)

5.3.10 /kind, (/kind), (/kind=4)

5.3.11 /logical, /log, (/logical=4)

5.3.12 /natural, /nat, /nonatural

5.3.13 /onetrip, 1, (/noonetrip), /n1

5.3.14 /real, /rl, (/real=4)

5.3.15 /save, /sv, (/save=manual_adjust)

5.3.16 /scan, (/scan=72)

5.3.17 /syntax, /sy, (off)

5.3.18 /type, /ty, (/notype), /nty

5.4 Inlining and Interprocedural Analysis Qualifiers

5.4.1 /inline, /inl, (off) /noinline, /ninl, /ipa, /ipa, (off), /noipa, /nipa

5.4.2 /inline_and_copy, /inlc, (off)

5.4.3 /inline_create, /incr, (off), /ipa_create, /ipacr, (off)

5.4.4 /inline_depth, /ind, (/inline_depth=2), /ipa_depth, /ipad, (/ipa_depth=2)

5.4.5 /inline_from_files, /inff, (current source file)

5.4.6 /inline_from_libraries, /infl, (off)

5.4.7 /ipa_from_files, /ipaff, (current source file)

5.4.8 /ipa_from_libraries, /ipafl, (off)

5.4.9 /inline_looplevel, /inll, (/inline_looplevel=2), /ipa_looplevel, /ipall, (/ipa_looplevel=2)

5.4.10 /inline_manual, /inm, (off), /ipa_manual, /ipam, (off)

5.4.11 /inline_optimize, (/inline_optimize=0), /ipa_optimize, (/ipa_optimize=0)

5.5 Advanced Optimization Control

5.5.1 /aggressive, /ag, (/noaggressive), /nag

5.5.2 /arclimit, /arclm, (/arclimit=5000)

5.5.3 /cacheline, /chl, (/cacheline=32,32)

5.5.4 /cache_prefetch_line_count, /cplc, (/cplc=0)

5.5.5 /cachesize, /chs, (/cachesize=8,0)

5.5.6 /dpregisters, /dpr, (/dpregisters=32)

5.5.7 /each_invariant_if_growth, /eiifg, (/eiifg=20)

5.5.8 /fpregisters, /fpr, (/fpregisters=32)

5.5.9 /fuse, /nfuse, (/nofuse)

5.5.10 /fuselevel, /fuselevel=1, (/fuselevel=0)

5.5.11 /generateh

5.5.12 /hdir, /hd, (/hdir=current_directory)

5.5.13 /heaplimit, /heap, (/heaplimit=100)

5.5.14 /hoist_loop_invariants, /hli, (/hoist_loop_invariants=1)

5.5.15 /interleave, /intl, (/interleave)

5.5.16 /library_calls, /lc, (off)

5.5.17 /limit, /lm, (/limit=10)

5.5.18 /machine, /ma, /noma, (machine=s)

5.5.19 /max_invariant_if_growth, /miifg, (/miifg=500)

5.5.20 /routine, /rt, /nrt, (/noroutine)

5.5.21 /setassociativity, /sasc, (/setassociativity=1)

5.5.22 /srlcd, /nsrlcd, (/nosrlcd)

5.5.23 /unroll, /ur, (unroll=4), /unroll2, /ur2, (/unroll2=160), /unroll3, /ur3, (/unroll3=20)

5.5.24 /useh

5.6 Directive Recognition Qualifiers

5.6.1 /directives, /dr, (/directives=akpv), /nodirectives, /ndr

5.6.2 /ignoreoptions, /ig, (/noignoreoptions), /nig

5.7 Input-Output Qualifiers

5.7.1 /cmp, (<file>.cmp.f), (<file>.cmp.f), /nocmp, /ncmp

5.7.2 /fortran, /f, (<file>.cmp.f), (<file>.cmp.f), /nofortran, /nf

5.7.3 /list, /l, (<file>.out), /nolist, /nl

5.8 Listing Qualifiers

5.8.1 /cmpoptions, /cp, /cmpoptions=n, (/nocmpoptions), /ncp

5.8.2 /lines, /ln, (/lines=55)

5.8.3 /listingwidth, /lw, (/listingwidth=132)

5.8.4 /listoptions, /lo, (/listoptions=o)

5.8.5 /suppress, /su, (off)

5.9 C*$* options

6 Directives

6.1 Directive Usage and Syntax

6.2 KAP Directives

6.3 General Optimization Directives

6.3.1 C*$* arclimit (0-5000)

6.3.2 C*$* beginblock <directive block> C*$* endblock

6.3.3 C*$* each_invariant_if_growth (0-100)

6.3.4 C*$* limit (> 0)

6.3.5 C*$* max_invariant_if_growth (0-1000)

6.3.6 C*$* optimize (0-5)

6.3.7 C*$* roundoff (0-3)

6.3.8 C*$* scalar optimize (0-3 )

6.3.9 C*$* unroll( <#it>[<weight>])

6.4 Parallel Processing Directives

6.4.1 C*$* [no]concurrentize

6.4.2 C*$* minconcurrent (0-999999)

6.4.3 C*$* optimize=6

6.5 Inlining and IPA

6.5.1 C*$* [no]inline [here|routine|global] [(name [,name...])]

6.5.2 C*$* [no]ipa [here|routine|global] [(name [,name...])]

6.6 Assertions

6.6.1 C*$* [no]assertions

6.7 Memory Management

6.7.1 C*$* padding (var-list)

6.7.2 C*$* storage order (var-list)

7 Assertions

7.1 KAP Assertions

7.2 Descriptions

7.2.1 C*$* assert [no]argument aliasing

7.2.2 C*$* assert [no]bounds violations

7.2.3 C*$* assert [no]equivalence hazard

7.2.4 C*$* assert [no]last value needed

7.2.5 C*$* assert permutation

7.2.6 C*$* assert no recurrence

7.2.7 C*$* assert relation ( <name> .XX. <variable/constant>)

7.2.8 C*$* assert no sync

7.2.9 C*$* assert [no] temporaries for constant arguments

7.3 Parallel Processing Assertions

7.3.1 C*$* assert concurrent call

7.3.2 C*$* assert do (concurrent)

7.3.3 C*$* assert do (concurrent call)

7.3.4 C*$* assert do (serial)

7.3.5 C*$* assert do prefer (concurrent)

7.3.6 C*$* assert do prefer (serial)

8 Inlining and IPA

8.1 Inlining and IPA Command Qualifiers

8.1.1 inline_from/ipa_from qualifiers

8.1.2 Library Creation

8.1.3 Naming Specific Routines

8.1.4 DO Loop Level

8.1.5 Recursive Inlining

8.1.6 Manual Control

8.2 Inlining and IPA Directives

8.3 Listing File Support

8.3.1 /Listoptions=c

8.4 Inlining/IPA Examples

8.4.1 Inlining Example - Same Source File

8.4.2 Inlining Example with a Library

8.4.3 IPA Example

8.4.4 Recursive Inlining Examples

8.4.5 Manual Inlining Example

8.4.6 Notes on Inlining and IPA

8.5 Conditions Inhibiting Inlining/IPA

9 Transformations

9.1 Memory Management

9.1.1 Command Qualifiers

9.1.2 Memory Management Tactics

9.2 Serial Optimizations

9.2.1 Dead-Code Elimination

9.2.2 Induction Variable Recognition

9.2.3 Global Forward Substitution

9.2.4 Loop Peeling

9.2.5 Lifetime Analysis

9.2.6 Invariant-IF Restructuring

9.2.7 Reciprocal Substitution

9.3 Scalar (Dusty-Deck) IF Transformations

9.3.1 IF to Block IF

9.3.2 IF to DO Loop

9.3.3 Semantic IF Merging

9.3.4 Zero-Trip IF Removal

9.4 Loop Unrolling

9.5 Loop Rerolling

10 KAP Listing File

10.1 Listing Qualifiers

10.1.1 Original Program Listing (O)

10.1.2 Calling Tree (C)

10.1.3 KAP Switches (K)

10.1.4 Loop Table (L)

10.1.5 Name (N)

10.1.6 Compilation Performance Statistics (P)

10.1.7 Summary Table (S)

10.1.8 Transformed Program Listing (T)

10.2 Listing Information

10.2.1 Line Numbers

10.2.2 DO Loop Markings

10.2.3 INCLUDE File Markings

10.2.4 Footnotes

10.2.5 Syntax Error/Warning Messages

10.2.6 Questions Generated by KAP

10.2.7 Action Summary

10.3 Loop Table Messages

10.4 KAP Listing Messages

A Compaq Fortran Extensions Supported by KAP

B Data Dependence Analysis

B.1 Data Dependence Definitions

B.2 Varieties of Data Dependence

B.3 Input and Output Sets

B.4 Data Dependence Relations

B.5 Data Dependence Direction Vectors

B.6 Loop-Carried Dependence

B.7 Data Dependence Examples

C Listing File Messages

C.1 Classes of Messages

C.2 Messages

C.2.1 Data Dependence (DD)

C.2.2 Error (E)

C.2.3 Extension (EX)

C.2.4 Inlining/IPA (INL)

C.2.5 Informational (INF)

C.2.6 Inserted (I)

C.2.7 Loop Reordering (LR)

C.2.8 Warning (MIS)

C.2.9 Option Error (OW)

C.2.10 Not Optimized (NO)

C.2.11 Output Translation (OT)

C.2.12 Output Trans Fails (OTF)

C.2.13 Program Too Large (NO)

C.2.14 Question (Q)

C.2.15 Scalar Optimization (SO)

C.2.16 Standardized (STD)

C.2.17 Translator Error (TE)

C.2.18 Vector Enhanced (VE)

C.2.19 Warning (W)

D KAP and Incorrect Programs



2-1 kfort Assumed Source Format Based on Qualifiers and File Extensions

2-2 User Actions for Specific Goals

3-1 Comparison of KAP PCF and Cray Autotasking Directives

5-1 Command-Line Qualifiers

6-1 KAP Directives

7-1 KAP Assertions

A-1 Compaq Fortran Extensions Supported by KAP

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Command-Line Qualifiers

Copyright © Digital Equipment Corporation. 1999. All Rights Reserved.